Media exposure to images from terrorism events subjects the individual to images of traumatic events that may be harmful to their physical and mental well-being. According to Hoffman and Kruzcek (2012), exposure to sudden, unexpected, and uncontrollable catastrophic events contributes to a chronic level of stress and distress. This can lead to immediate or eventual mortality in the long run. In this effect, the prolonged exposure of individuals to traumatic terror events aired on the mass media leads to indirect catastrophic events. These include chronic stress ineffective coping, feeling of injustice, loss of social networks as well as secondary illnesses that are linked to the reaction to stress. The mass media is perceived as an ecosystem that is external to the individual but still affects the individual.