A stock exchange is a financial marketplace where stocks, bonds and securities are traded at rates that are determined by the forces of demand and supply. Essentially, stock exchanges play two roles. Firstly, they are primary markets that enable governments, corporations and other institutions to raise capital by selling various financial instruments to investors. Secondly, they are secondary markets that allow investors to trade in their financial instruments for cash. As a result of these two functions, stock exchanges facilitate the growth and expansion of organizations, provide an investment opportunity for investors and also provide several employment opportunities.