In the modern globalized and hyper-competitive business environment, competent leaders and a good leadership strategy differentiate successful companies from the unsuccessful companies. Organizations are formed to achieve specific objectives through a group of employees each assigned various and tasks. Leaders are key to the success of an organization because they have the responsibility of ensuring that subordinates utilize their efforts to achieve the organizational goals.
In modern-day organizations, leadership involves eliminating the obstacles that may hinder employees from attaining the desired goals, and empowering them with the freedom and resources to make decisions on behalf of the organization. A leader should be able t have a good interpersonal relationship with employees, and should also demonstrate behavior that motivates employees to work cohesively towards the achievement of the organization’s objectives. Effective leadership is crucial to the organization because it has an impact on all stakeholders’ perception of an organization.
II. Summary of the Articles Reviewed
A. How Toxic Leadership Negatively Affects Work Outcomes
The toxic behaviors of a leader often affect employees negatively, and consequently, also affect the performance of the organization. Some of the outcomes associated with toxic leadership include high rates of absenteeism, lower productivity, a demotivated workforce and high staff turnover. The study examines how toxic leadership behaviors affect group cohesion and employee commitment in the banking sector of the UAE (Al Zaabi, Elanain, & Ajmal, 2018).
In the article, leadership toxicity is defined as the phenomenon where subordinates feel abused by the negative behaviors of a leader. It leads to a work environment that lacks conductivity for productivity. Even when the leader’s toxic behaviors are directed towards people within the organization, it inadvertently affects the entire organization. Toxic leadership occurs in various ways; however, there is a consensus that these leaders engage focus mostly on their own interests and have abusive tendencies.
In a toxic work environment the level of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is low because employees are demotivated to perform duties that occur outside their explicit job description. There is also a negative relationship between workplace toxicity and productivity because the more toxic the work environment is, the more stressed the employees will be, thus, leading to decreased productivity.
B. Ethical leadership, self-efficacy and job satisfaction in China
The paper examines what employees in China consider to be ethical leadership and how it affects job satisfaction. The data was drawn from approximately 388 employees who work in nine different Chinese companies. Leaders’ behavior contributes significantly to how employees perceive their work within the organization. Subordinates often follow the example of their leaders, therefore, ethical leaders provide a positive model for the type of behavior that employees should demonstrate. When employees work in an environment where they feel that leaders care, respect and support them, they develop a positive attitude towards their roles, colleagues and the organization.
Ethical leaders demonstrate non-partisan leadership; they reward employees for their achievements and equally also discipline wrongdoers (Ren, & Chadee, 2017). The paper argues that ethical leadership creates job satisfaction by creating certainty among the workforce that the organization’s leaders are working in their best interests. The paper also proposes that ethical leadership leads to a work environment where employees feel safe developing their skills, participating in decision making and maintaining a positive attitude towards their duties.
C. Supervisor expediency to employee expediency
This article examines the various circumstances and scenarios in which employees model the unethical behaviors of their supervisors. Despite the fact that subordinates are the ones who perform majority of the actual work in an organization, the leadership and management of a company plays a significant role in its performance because they provide the example that employees will follow. Therefore, according to the article, by examining the behavior of the supervisor, one can determine the performance of the organization.
For instance, in organizations where leaders demonstrate expediency; that is cutting corners to get the job done, the subordinates also demonstrate similar behaviors. In this study, the social learning theory provides an explanation for this behavior (Greenbaum, Mawritz, Bonner, Webster, & Kim, 2017). It states that in organizations where there is a high level of respect, support and trust in the relationship between the supervisor and employee, employees tend to adopt the supervisor’s expediency. Thus, in organizations where there is a high-LMX relationship between leaders and subordinates, the subordinates tend to begin to engage in unethical business practices.